English frame designs were greatly influenced by French and Dutch styles. Although frames were often mass produced in the 19th century and the gilded ornamentation was usually cast in plaster or ‘compo’ instead of hand-carved, many exquisite designs were created during this time such as frames associated with the Pre-Raphaelite and Aesthetic Movements. The reeded or Whistler style frame, widely made in late 19th century England and America, was used extensively by James Abbott McNeil Whistler.
Ripple – Continuous rows of a wave-like pattern frequently carved into ebony or ebonized woods in 17th century Flemish, German, and Southern European frames. The ‘ripple’ frame designs were revived in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries when they were occasionally gilded.